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  1. page Cosmology- The Study of the Universe edited {miracle_of_science_in_cosmology_&_astrology.jpg} COSMOLOGY {miracle_of_science_in_cosmol…
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    COSMOLOGY
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    What is Cosmology?
    The term Cosmology refers to the study of the large scale properties of the Universe as a whole. Cosmology involves the development of theories or hypotheses regarding the Universe, ultimately making specific predictions for phenomena that can be tested with observations. Cosmologist's goal is to understand the origin of evolution of humans in the grand scale of things. Cosmologist use laws of physics to explain the Universes governing force, as a result of the Big Bang Theory. (1)
    ...
    Cosmological DisciplinesCosmology has played a vital role in understanding the Universe as a whole. Although the modern discipline of cosmology focuses primarily on scientific analysis, the history of Cosmology has played a participating role in philosophy esterocism, metaphysics, and theology.
    Physical Cosmologies
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    them, but research has increased
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    progressing. (3)
    A

    {bigbang.gif}
    A
    large area
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    its inception.
    {http://universum.mediaquell.com/files/2010/10/990387_WMAP-L2_NASA-580x326.jpg} A rendition of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe in space
    Metaphysical Cosmology
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    metaphysics is important to offer
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    necessary?" (3)(4)
    {roger-bacon-1-sized.jpg}

    Theological Cosmology
    In every society people attempt to define creation. The theories designed are a subset of the cosmological discipline because they strive to describe the beginnings of the Universe and human life. Universally, much of these studies are rooted in theology or dogma. For instance, in the Christian faith followers believe that the Universe was created as a direct act by God, with an intent plan for humanity. Therefore, these beliefs refer to cosmology because it links with the creation of humanity. Other religious cosmologies also tell of the end of the Universe.(3)
    Historical Cosmologies
    {V7000104-Historical_cosmology-SPL.jpg}
    Cosmological theories beginning with the Ancient Greeks that have evolved with the influence of many philosophers and astronomers over time, ending with what is considered "modern" cosmology. Cosmology has been around since the first person wondered "What is going on around me?" However written cosmology begins with the Ancient Greeks as they were the first people to record it. The earliest cosmological models are strongly based on human experience and largely influenced by culture, mythology and religion. Modern cosmology is much more scientifically centered. Historical Cosmologies allow us to see where modern cosmology emerges from and how cosmological views have been shaped by important events in history.
    1. http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/index.html
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  4. page NASA's Apollo Missions edited ... {http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-s6s3J0QiqBk/TW2-GDZF2JI/AAAAAAAAI4E/8bZOuV3pk-s/s1600/Apollo_15_Lun…
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    {http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-s6s3J0QiqBk/TW2-GDZF2JI/AAAAAAAAI4E/8bZOuV3pk-s/s1600/Apollo_15_Lunar_Rover_and_Irwin.jpg} http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-s6s3J0QiqBk/TW2-GDZF2JI/AAAAAAAAI4E/8bZOuV3pk-s/s1600/Apollo_15_Lunar_Rover_and_Irwin.jpg
    {http://www.parabolicarc.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/apollo-11.jpg} http://www.parabolicarc.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/apollo-11.jpg
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    Apollo Missions wascame in 1959
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    examine the moonMoon in detail.
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    until 1969 thatwhen NASA was
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    despite this compititioncompetition it remained
    Apollo 1 {http://www.nasm.si.edu/collections/imagery/apollo/as01/AS01_CM_crew.gif} http://www.nasm.si.edu/collections/imagery/apollo/as01/AS01_CM_crew.gif
    On January 27, 1967, tragedy struck the Apollo program when a flash fire occurred in command module 012 during a launch pad test of the Apollo/Saturn space vehicle being prepared for the first piloted flight, the AS-204 mission. Three astronauts, Lt. Col. Virgil I. Grissom, a veteran of Mercury and Gemini missions; Lt. Col. Edward H. White, the astronaut who had performed the first United States extravehicular activity during the Gemini program; {http://abyss.uoregon.edu/%7Ejs/images/apollo1_fire.jpg} http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/apollo1_fire.jpgand Roger B. Chaffee, an astronaut preparing for his first space flight, died in this tragic accident. A seven-member board, under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center Director, Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, conducted a comprehensive investigation to pinpoint the cause of the fire. The final report, completed in April 1967 was subsequently submitted to the NASA Administrator. The report presented the results of the
    ...
    Apollo 2 was an unmanned mission that launched on July 5, 1966. It was destroyed six hours into the flight although it was able to orbit four times. The main purpose of the flight was to investigate the effects of weightlessness on the fuel in the S-IVB tank. It was this particular tank that the Apollo astronauts planned to use to boost them out of the Earth's orbit. The engineers wanted to figure out how the fuel, which was liquid hydrogen, would behave in the tank during take off. The rocket launched into a 188-kilometer circular orbit. The scientists wanted to observe the condition of the tank under extreme pressure and they measured the amount of stress that it could handle before it finally broke into pieces in space. Even though the rocket did not last long, its goals were achieved and its mission was deemed a success. Scientists got their answers as to how the fuel in the tank behaved and because of this vital information they were able to anticipate its storage, handling, etc. Douglas Aircraft Company, the manufacturer of the S-IVB, made slight modifications to the tank and three months after Apollo 2 orbited the earth, declared that the new S-IVB tank was ready and fully operational to finally take man to the moon (4).
    Apollo 3
    Apollo 3a.k.a3 a.k.a AS-202 or
    ...
    over one minute.CSM-011minute.Command Space Module(CSM) -011 used during
    {http://radio-weblogs.com/0111737/categories/wow/images/v_apollo_4_liftoff_02.jpg} http://radio-weblogs.com/0111737/categories/wow/images/v_apollo_4_liftoff_02.jpg
    Apollo 4
    Apollo 4 took off on November 9, 1967 at 7am. It was the first manned Apollo mission since the Apollo 1 disaster. The goals of the flight was to demonstrate the structural and thermal integrity and compatibility of the launch vehicle and spacecraft and to confirm the launch loads and dynamic characteristics. It also verified the operation of command module heatshield (adequacy of Block II design for reentry at lunar return condition), service propulsion system, and other selective subsystems. The final goals of the flight was to evaluate the performance of emergency detection system in open-loop configuration and demonstrate mission support facilities and operations needed for launch, mission conduct and command module recovery. During the third orbit and after SPS engine burn, the spacecraft coasted to a simulated translunar trajectory, reaching an altitude of 18,079 kilometers. The launch marked the initial flight testing of the S-IC and S-II stages. The first stage, S-IC, performed accurately with the center F-1 engine cutting off at 135.5 seconds and the outboard engines cutting off at LOX (Liquid Oxygen) depletion at 150.8 seconds when the vehicle was traveling at 9660 km/h at an altitude of 61.6 km. Stage separation occurred only 1.2 seconds off the predicted time. Cutoff of the S-II occurred at 519.8 seconds. A Pacific Ocean landing was planned and accomplished on November 9, 1967, 03:37 p.m. EST, just eight hours and thirty-seven minutes and fifty-nine seconds after takeoff. The Apollo 4 Spacecraft 017 splashed down at 30 deg 06 min North and 172 deg 32 min West. It missed the planned impact point by only 16km. The capsule was recovered by USS Bennington CVS-20. The Apollo 4 mission was a success, all mission objectives achieved. With the success of this first "all up" test, George Mueller's decision was vindicated. This new method of “all up” testing allowed NASA to meet the 1969 lunar goal, despite the setback of the Apollo 1 fire, while saving money and equipment for later use (6).
    Apollo 5
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    orbital performance.
    After
    After launch, the
    Apollo 6
    {http://astroprofspage.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/interstage_apollo6.jpg}
    ...
    The primary objectives for the Apollo 7 engineering test flight were simple: Demonstrate command and service module, or CSM, and crew performance; demonstrate crew, space vehicle and mission support facilities performance during a crewed CSM mission; and demonstrate CSM rendezvous capability. Oct. 11, 1968, was a hot day Cape Kennedy, but the heat was tempered by a pleasant breeze when Apollo 7 lifted off in a two-tongued blaze of orange-colored flames. The Saturn IB, in its first trial with men aboard, crewed by Walter Schirra Jr, R. Walter Cunningham, Donn F. Eisele, provided a perfect launch, and its first stage dropped off two minutes, 25 seconds later. The S-IVB second stage took over, giving astronauts their first ride atop a load of liquid hydrogen. At five minutes, 54 seconds into the mission, Walter Schirra Jr., the commander, reported, "She is riding like a dream." About five minutes later, an elliptical orbit was achieved 140 by 183 miles above Earth. Ten and a half minutes after launch, with little bumpiness and low g loads during acceleration, Apollo 7 reached the first stage of its journey, an orbital path 227 by 285 kilometers above Earth. The Apollo vehicle and the CSM performed superbly. Durability was shown for 10.8 days -- longer than a journey to the moon and back. With few exceptions, the other systems in the spacecraft operated as they should. Occasionally, one of the three fuel cells supplying electricity to the craft developed some unwanted high temperatures, but load-sharing hookups among the cells prevented any power shortage. Despite minor irritations, such as smudging windows and puddling water, most components supported the operations and well-being of the spacecraft and crew as planned. Some of the crew's grumpiness during the mission could be attributed to physical discomfort. About 15 hours into the flight, Schirra developed a bad cold, and Cunningham and Eisele soon followed suit. A cold is uncomfortable enough on the ground, but in weightlessness it presents a different problem. Mucus accumulates, fills the nasal passages and does not drain from the head. The only relief is to blow hard, which is painful to the ear drums. So the crew of Apollo 7 whirled through space suffering from stopped-up ears and noses. The CSM's service propulsion system, which had to fire the CSM into and out of the moon's orbit, worked perfectly during eight burns lasting from half a second to 67.6 seconds. Apollo's flotation bags had their first try out when the spacecraft splashed down in the Atlantic southeast of Bermuda, less than 2 kilometers from the planned impact point. Landing location was 27 degrees, 32 minutes north, and 64 degrees, four minutes west. The module turned upside down, but when inflated, the brightly colored bags flipped it upright. The tired, but happy, voyagers were picked up by helicopter and deposited on the deck of the USS Essex by 8:20 a.m. Spacecraft was aboard the ship at 9:03 a.m. Apollo 7 accomplished what it set out to do -- qualifying the command and service module, and clearing the way for the proposed lunar orbit mission to follow. Its activities were of national interest. A special edition of NASA's news clipping collection called "Current News" included front page stories from 32 major newspapers scattered over the length and breadth of the nation. Although the post-mission celebrations may not have rivaled those for the first orbital flight of an American, John Glenn in 1962, enthusiasm was high and this fervor would build to even greater heights each time the lunar landing goal drew one step closer(9).
    Apollo 8
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    and orbit it andit. This was crewedaccomplished by the astronauts Frank Borman,
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    trip the astronaughtsastronauts made a
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    that were estamatedestimated to have
    Apollo 9
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    crewed lunar module, or LM.module (LM). Concurrent prime
    Apollo 10 {http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/IMAGES/LARGE/GPN-2000-001163.jpg} http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/IMAGES/LARGE/GPN-2000-001163.jpg
    Apollo 10 was essentially a dress rehearsal for the actually Moon landing. It was the second time that the spacecraft was going to have orbited the Moon but it was the first time that it was doing it with all the material that they would use and need when they do land on the Moon. It was launched on May 18, 1969 and landed on May 26 at 11:52 am. The Apollo 10 mission took eight days and included a simulated landing on the Moon. All systems in the command and service modules and the lunar module were managed very well. While some problems were encountered, most were minor and none constrained the completion of mission objectives. Communication was generally adequate and the quality of television transmissions extremely good. Crew performance was excellent throughout the mission and timelines were followed very closely. The next step following Apollo 10 was to accomplish the dream of landing on the Moon(12).
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  5. page Black Holes edited ... {http://media.smashingmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/images/space-photography/space-photograp…
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    {http://media.smashingmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/images/space-photography/space-photography-173.jpg} A NASA Chandra photo of a black hole emitting x-ray jets 2/2/09
    History of Black Hole Research
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    horizon in a black hole. This also led to the first belief that time could be slowed inside a black
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    solar masses would become black holes, and no laws of physics could stop an object from collapsing into a black hole. The term black hole was first coined in 1964 by Anne Ewing but didn't gain attention until John Wheeler used it on a regular basis. Wheeler developed the no-hair theorem which states that a black hole is described by three properties of angular momentum, electric charge, and mass. Stephen Hawking along with a few other scientists supplied mathematical statistics to confirm the no-hair theorem. In 1974 Hawking made a groundbreaking discovery when he discovered black holes emit thermal energy called Hawking radiation, because it was not known that black holes emitted anything.
    How are Black Holes Created?
    Black Holes form when huge stars with a mass over 25 times higher than the sun end their lives as a supernova, through one of the most powerful events in the entire universe. The direct cause of a black hole occurs after a supernova, when a star loses the fight against gravity. Gravity compresses the star's core into a point with basically zero mass; and also has infinite density which exemplifies gravitational singularity.(3) Milliseconds after the core collapses the newborn black hole immediately starts to swallow the star, the star then explodes and emits Gamma-ray bursts. They scatter through the universe at the speed of light and are used to count how many black holes are being created. Once the gamma-ray bursts have been emitted the black hole begins to continually grow in size by swallowing interstellar dust, stars and anything else. Black holes also emit thermal radiation called Hawking radiation which can inhibit its growth, and slowly cause it to evaporate if matter is not being absorbed.
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  6. page NASA's Apollo Missions edited ... Apollo 17 The lunar landing site was the Taurus-Littrow highlands and valley area. This site …
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    Apollo 17
    The lunar landing site was the Taurus-Littrow highlands and valley area. This site was picked for Apollo 17 as a location where rocks both older and younger than those previously returned from other Apollo missions, as well as from Luna 16 and 20 missions, might be found. The mission was the final in a series of three J-type missions planned for the Apollo Program. These J-type missions can be distinguished from previous G- and H-series missions by extended hardware capability, larger scientific payload capacity and by the use of the battery-powered Lunar Roving Vehicle, or LRV. Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included, geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region; deploying and activating surface experiments; and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast. These objectives included deployed experiments, such as the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, or ALSEP, with a heat flow experiment; lunar seismic profiling, or LSP; lunar surface gravimeter, or LSG; lunar atmospheric composition experiment, or LACE; and lunar ejecta and meteorites, or LEAM. The mission also included lunar sampling and lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. At 9:15:29 a.m. GMT Dec. 7, 1972, the command and service module, or CSM, was separated from the S-IVB. Approximately 15 min later, the CSM docked with the lunar module, or LM. After CSM/LM extraction from the S-IVB, the S-IVB was targeted for lunar impact, which occurred Dec. 10, at 8:32:43 p.m. The impact location was approximately 84 nautical miles northwest of the planned target point and the event was recorded by the passive seismic experiments deployed on the Apollos 12, 14, 15 and 16 missions. Only one of the four planned midcourse corrections was required during translunar coast. A midcourse correction made at 5:03 p.m. Dec. 8, was a 1.6 second service propulsion system burn resulting in a 10>:5 feet/second velocity change. Lunar orbit insertion was accomplished at 7:47:23 p.m. Dec. 10, placing the spacecraft into a lunar orbit of 170 by 52.6 nautical miles. Approximately four hours, 20 minutes later, the orbit was reduced to 59 by 15 nautical miles. The spacecraft remained in this low orbit for more than 18 hours, during which time the CSM/LM undocking and separation were performed. The CSM circularization maneuver was performed at 6:50:29 p.m. Dec. 11, which placed the C {http://www.spacefacts.de/graph/drawing/drawings2/apollo-17.jpg} http://www.spacefacts.de/graph/drawing/drawings2/apollo-17.jpgSM into an orbit of 70.3 by 54.3 nautical miles. At 2:35 p.m. Dec. 11, the commander and lunar module pilot entered the LM to prepare for descent to the lunar surface. At 6:55:42 p.m. Dec. 11, the LM was placed into an orbit with a perilune altitude of 6.2 nautical miles. Approximately 47 minutes later, the powered descent to the lunar surface began. Landing occurred at 7:54:57 p.m. Dec. 11, at lunar latitude 20 degrees, 10 minutes north, and longitude 30 degrees 46 minutes east. Apollo 17 was the last lunar landing mission. Three extravehicular activities, or EVAs, lasted a total of 22 hours, four minutes on the lunar surface. EVA No. 1 began at {http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a17/17portrait.jpg} http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a17/17portrait.jpg11:54:49 p.m. Dec. 11, with Eugene Cernan egressing at 12:01 a.m. Dec. 12. The first EVA was seven hours, 12 minutes long and was completed at 7:06:42 a.m. Dec. 12. The second EVA began at 11:28:06 p.m. Dec. 12, and lasted seven hours, 37 minutes, ending at at 7:05:02 a.m. Dec. 13. The final EVA began at 10:25:48 p.m. Dec. 13, and ended at 5:40:56 a.m. Dec. 14. The LM ascent stage lifted off the moon at 10:54:37 p.m. Dec. 14. After a vernier adjustment maneuver, the ascent stage was inserted into a 48.5 by 9.4 nautical mile orbit. The LM terminal phase initiation burn was made at 11:48:58 p.m. Dec. 14. This 3.2 second maneuver raised the ascent stage orbit to 64.7 by 48.5 nautical miles. The CSM and LM docked at 1:10:15 a.m. The LM ascent stage was jettisoned at 4:51:31 a.m. Dec. 15. Deorbit firing of the ascent stage was initiated at 6:31:14 a.m. Dec. 15, and lunar impact occurred 19 minutes, seven seconds later approximately 0.7 nautical miles from the planned target at latitude 19 degrees, 56 minutes north, and longitude 30 degrees, 32 minutes east. The ascent stage impact was recorded by the four Apollo 17 geophones, and by each ALSEP at Apollos 12, 14, 15 and 16 landing sites. Ronald Evans performed a transearth EVA at 8:27:40 p.m. Dec. 17, that lasted one hour, six minutes, during which time he retrieved the lunar sounder film, as well as the panoramic and mapping camera film cassettes. Apollo 17 hosted the first scientist-astronaut to land on moon: Harrison Schmitt. The sixth automated research station was set up. The lunar rover vehicle traversed a total of 30.5 kilometers. Lunar surface-stay time was 75 hours, and lunar orbit time 17 hours. Astronauts gathered 110.4 kilograms, or 243 pounds, of material. Even though this was the last Apollo mission, the influence of the Apollo missions still resonates today (18).
    {http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20504.alsep1_.png} http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20504.alsep1_.png {http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20501.alsep2.png}
    {http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20501.alsep2.png}
    http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20501.alsep2.png
    References1. "Apollo Missions." LunarLand.com. https://www.lunarland.com/pages/The-Beginning-of-Apollo-Missions-/75/ (accessed December 3, 2011).
    2. "The Apollo Missions." LunarLand.com. https://www.lunarland.com/pages/Apollo-Missions/48/ (accessed December 3, 2011).
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  7. page NASA's Apollo Missions edited ... Apollo 17 The lunar landing site was the Taurus-Littrow highlands and valley area. This site …
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    Apollo 17
    The lunar landing site was the Taurus-Littrow highlands and valley area. This site was picked for Apollo 17 as a location where rocks both older and younger than those previously returned from other Apollo missions, as well as from Luna 16 and 20 missions, might be found. The mission was the final in a series of three J-type missions planned for the Apollo Program. These J-type missions can be distinguished from previous G- and H-series missions by extended hardware capability, larger scientific payload capacity and by the use of the battery-powered Lunar Roving Vehicle, or LRV. Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included, geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region; deploying and activating surface experiments; and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast. These objectives included deployed experiments, such as the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, or ALSEP, with a heat flow experiment; lunar seismic profiling, or LSP; lunar surface gravimeter, or LSG; lunar atmospheric composition experiment, or LACE; and lunar ejecta and meteorites, or LEAM. The mission also included lunar sampling and lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. At 9:15:29 a.m. GMT Dec. 7, 1972, the command and service module, or CSM, was separated from the S-IVB. Approximately 15 min later, the CSM docked with the lunar module, or LM. After CSM/LM extraction from the S-IVB, the S-IVB was targeted for lunar impact, which occurred Dec. 10, at 8:32:43 p.m. The impact location was approximately 84 nautical miles northwest of the planned target point and the event was recorded by the passive seismic experiments deployed on the Apollos 12, 14, 15 and 16 missions. Only one of the four planned midcourse corrections was required during translunar coast. A midcourse correction made at 5:03 p.m. Dec. 8, was a 1.6 second service propulsion system burn resulting in a 10>:5 feet/second velocity change. Lunar orbit insertion was accomplished at 7:47:23 p.m. Dec. 10, placing the spacecraft into a lunar orbit of 170 by 52.6 nautical miles. Approximately four hours, 20 minutes later, the orbit was reduced to 59 by 15 nautical miles. The spacecraft remained in this low orbit for more than 18 hours, during which time the CSM/LM undocking and separation were performed. The CSM circularization maneuver was performed at 6:50:29 p.m. Dec. 11, which placed the C {http://www.spacefacts.de/graph/drawing/drawings2/apollo-17.jpg} http://www.spacefacts.de/graph/drawing/drawings2/apollo-17.jpgSM into an orbit of 70.3 by 54.3 nautical miles. At 2:35 p.m. Dec. 11, the commander and lunar module pilot entered the LM to prepare for descent to the lunar surface. At 6:55:42 p.m. Dec. 11, the LM was placed into an orbit with a perilune altitude of 6.2 nautical miles. Approximately 47 minutes later, the powered descent to the lunar surface began. Landing occurred at 7:54:57 p.m. Dec. 11, at lunar latitude 20 degrees, 10 minutes north, and longitude 30 degrees 46 minutes east. Apollo 17 was the last lunar landing mission. Three extravehicular activities, or EVAs, lasted a total of 22 hours, four minutes on the lunar surface. EVA No. 1 began at {http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a17/17portrait.jpg} http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a17/17portrait.jpg11:54:49 p.m. Dec. 11, with Eugene Cernan egressing at 12:01 a.m. Dec. 12. The first EVA was seven hours, 12 minutes long and was completed at 7:06:42 a.m. Dec. 12. The second EVA began at 11:28:06 p.m. Dec. 12, and lasted seven hours, 37 minutes, ending at at 7:05:02 a.m. Dec. 13. The final EVA began at 10:25:48 p.m. Dec. 13, and ended at 5:40:56 a.m. Dec. 14. The LM ascent stage lifted off the moon at 10:54:37 p.m. Dec. 14. After a vernier adjustment maneuver, the ascent stage was inserted into a 48.5 by 9.4 nautical mile orbit. The LM terminal phase initiation burn was made at 11:48:58 p.m. Dec. 14. This 3.2 second maneuver raised the ascent stage orbit to 64.7 by 48.5 nautical miles. The CSM and LM docked at 1:10:15 a.m. The LM ascent stage was jettisoned at 4:51:31 a.m. Dec. 15. Deorbit firing of the ascent stage was initiated at 6:31:14 a.m. Dec. 15, and lunar impact occurred 19 minutes, seven seconds later approximately 0.7 nautical miles from the planned target at latitude 19 degrees, 56 minutes north, and longitude 30 degrees, 32 minutes east. The ascent stage impact was recorded by the four Apollo 17 geophones, and by each ALSEP at Apollos 12, 14, 15 and 16 landing sites. Ronald Evans performed a transearth EVA at 8:27:40 p.m. Dec. 17, that lasted one hour, six minutes, during which time he retrieved the lunar sounder film, as well as the panoramic and mapping camera film cassettes. Apollo 17 hosted the first scientist-astronaut to land on moon: Harrison Schmitt. The sixth automated research station was set up. The lunar rover vehicle traversed a total of 30.5 kilometers. Lunar surface-stay time was 75 hours, and lunar orbit time 17 hours. Astronauts gathered 110.4 kilograms, or 243 pounds, of material. Even though this was the last Apollo mission, the influence of the Apollo missions still resonates today (18).
    {http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20504.alsep1_.png} http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20504.alsep1_.png {http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20501.alsep2.png} http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/news/uploads/AS17-134-20501.alsep2.png
    References1. "Apollo Missions." LunarLand.com. https://www.lunarland.com/pages/The-Beginning-of-Apollo-Missions-/75/ (accessed December 3, 2011).
    2. "The Apollo Missions." LunarLand.com. https://www.lunarland.com/pages/Apollo-Missions/48/ (accessed December 3, 2011).
    (view changes)
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